Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) and include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All material intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Use of Estimates and Assumptions and Critical Accounting Estimates and Assumptions
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the dates of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Risks and Uncertainties
The Company operates in an industry that is subject to intense competition and change in consumer demand. The Company’s operations are subject to significant risk and uncertainties including financial and operational risks including the potential risk of business failure.
The Company has experienced, and in the future expects to continue to experience, variability in sales and earnings. The factors expected to contribute to this variability include, among others, (i) the cyclical nature of the industry, (ii) general economic conditions in the various local markets in which the Company competes, including a potential general downturn in the economy, and (iii) the volatility of prices in connection with the Company’s distribution of the product. These factors, among others, make it difficult to project the Company’s operating results on a consistent basis.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially expose the Company to credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents, and accounts receivable. The Company is exposed to credit risk on its cash and cash equivalents in the event of default by the financial institutions to the extent account balances exceed the amount insured by the FDIC, which is $250,000. Accounts receivables potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk. Company closely monitors extensions of credit. Estimated credit losses have been recorded in the consolidated financial statements. Recent credit losses have been within management’s expectations. One customer accounted for more than 16% of revenues in 2019. No customer accounted for more than 10% of revenues in 2018.
Method of Accounting
Investments held in stock of entities other than subsidiaries, namely corporate joint ventures and other non-controlled entities usually are accounted for by one of three methods: (i) the fair value method (addressed in Topic 320), (ii) the equity method (addressed in Topic 323), or (iii) the cost method (addressed in Subtopic 325-20). Pursuant to Paragraph 323-10-05-5, the equity method tends to be most appropriate if an investment enables the investor to influence the operating or financial policies of the investee.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The Company held no cash equivalents at December 31, 2019 and 2018.
The Company minimizes its credit risk associated with cash by periodically evaluating the credit quality of its primary financial institution. The balance at times may exceed federally insured limits.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable are stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances. The Company generally does not require collateral to support customer receivables. The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon a review of the outstanding accounts receivable, historical collection information and existing economic conditions. The Company determines if receivables are past due based on days outstanding, and amounts are written off when determined to be uncollectible by management. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, the Company had reserves of $774,841 and 17,000, respectively.
As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, one customer represented approximately 80% and 22% of total gross outstanding receivables, respectively.
Fair value measurements
The Company adopted the provisions of ASC Topic 820, “Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures”, which defines fair value as used in numerous accounting pronouncements, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure of fair value measurements.
The estimated fair value of certain financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses are carried at historical cost basis, which approximates their fair values because of the short-term nature of these instruments. The carrying amounts of our short and long term credit obligations approximate fair value because the effective yields on these obligations, which include contractual interest rates taken together with other features such as concurrent issuances of warrants and/or embedded conversion options, are comparable to rates of returns for instruments of similar credit risk.
ASC 820 defines fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. ASC 820 also establishes a fair value hierarchy, which requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 describes three levels of inputs that may be used to measure fair value:
The Company evaluates its options, warrants, convertible notes, or other contracts, if any, to determine if those contracts or embedded components of those contracts qualify as derivatives to be separately accounted for in accordance with paragraph 815-10-05-4 and Section 815-40-25 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. The result of this accounting treatment is that the fair value of the embedded derivative is marked-to-market each balance sheet date and recorded as either an asset or a liability. The change in fair value is recorded in the consolidated statement of operations as other income or expense. Upon conversion, exercise or cancellation of a derivative instrument, the instrument is marked to fair value at the date of conversion, exercise or cancellation and then the related fair value is reclassified to equity.
In circumstances where the embedded conversion option in a convertible instrument is required to be bifurcated and there are also other embedded derivative instruments in the convertible instrument that are required to be bifurcated, the bifurcated derivative instruments are accounted for as a single, compound derivative instrument.
The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is re-assessed at the end of each reporting period. Equity instruments that are initially classified as equity that become subject to reclassification are reclassified to liability at the fair value of the instrument on the reclassification date. Derivative instrument liabilities will be classified in the balance sheet as current or non-current based on whether or not net-cash settlement of the derivative instrument is expected within 12 months of the balance sheet date.
The Company adopted Section 815-40-15 of the FASB Accounting Standards Codification (“Section 815-40-15”) to determine whether an instrument (or an embedded feature) is indexed to the Company’s own stock. Section 815-40-15 provides that an entity should use a two-step approach to evaluate whether an equity-linked financial instrument (or embedded feature) is indexed to its own stock, including evaluating the instrument’s contingent exercise and settlement provisions.
The Company utilizes a binomial option pricing model to compute the fair value of the derivative liability and to mark to market the fair value of the derivative at each balance sheet date. The Company records the change in the fair value of the derivative as other income or expense in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company had derivative liabilities of $190,846 and $51,058 as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The Company adopted ASC 606 effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method which would require a cumulative effect adjustment for initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings and the comparative information would not require to be restated and continue to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods.
Based on the Company’s analysis the Company did not identify a cumulative effect adjustment for initially applying the new revenue standards. The Company principally generates revenue through providing product, services and licensing revenue.
The adoption of ASC 606 represents a change in accounting principle that will more closely align revenue recognition with the delivery of the Company’s services and will provide financial statement readers with enhanced disclosures. In accordance with ASC 606, revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised services. The amount of revenue recognized reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled to receive in exchange for these services. To achieve this core principle, the Company applies the following five steps:
A contract with a customer exists when (i) the Company enters into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the services to be transferred and identifies the payment terms related to these services, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and, (iii) the Company determines that collection of substantially all consideration for services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration. The Company applies judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer.
Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the services that will be transferred to the customer that are both capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available from third parties or from the Company, and are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised services, the Company must apply judgment to determine whether promised services are capable of being distinct and distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met the promised services are accounted for as a combined performance obligation.
The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which the Company will be entitled in exchange for transferring services to the customer. To the extent the transaction price includes variable consideration, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price utilizing either the expected value method or the most likely amount method depending on the nature of the variable consideration. Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if, in the Company’s judgment, it is probable that a significant future reversal of cumulative revenue under the contract will not occur. None of the Company’s contracts as of December 31, 2019 contained a significant financing component.
If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. However, if a series of distinct services that are substantially the same qualifies as a single performance obligation in a contract with variable consideration, the Company must determine if the variable consideration is attributable to the entire contract or to a specific part of the contract. For example, a bonus or penalty may be associated with one or more, but not all, distinct services promised in a series of distinct services that forms part of a single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative standalone selling price basis unless the transaction price is variable and meets the criteria to be allocated entirely to a performance obligation or to a distinct service that forms part of a single performance obligation. The Company determines standalone selling price based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately. If the standalone selling price is not observable through past transactions, the Company estimates the standalone selling price taking into account available information such as market conditions and internally approved pricing guidelines related to the performance obligations.
The Company satisfies performance obligations either over time or at a point in time. Revenue is recognized at the time the related performance obligation is satisfied by transferring a promised service to a customer.
Disaggregation of Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The following table disaggregates gross revenue by entity for the year ended December 31, 2019 and 2018:
True Wireless is licensed to provide wireless services to qualifying low income customers in five states. Revenues are recognized when the services have been provided and the government subsidy has been earned.
Surge Blockchain revenues are generated through the SurgePaysPortal multi-purpose software are recognized when the goods and services have been delivered and earned.
Surge Logics is a full-service digital advertising agency and revenues are recognized at a period in time once performance obligations are met and services are provided as customer deposits are received in advance.
ECS is a leading provider of prepaid wireless load and top-ups, check cashing and wireless SIM activation to convenience stores and bodegas nationwide.
We use the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 740, “Income Taxes”. Under this method, income tax expense is recognized for the amount of: (i) taxes payable or refundable for the current year and (ii) deferred tax consequences of temporary differences resulting from matters that have been recognized in an entity’s financial statements or tax returns. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the results of operations in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided to reduce the deferred tax assets reported if based on the weight of the available positive and negative evidence, it is more likely than not some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.
Through December 23, 2014, KSIX and BLVD operated as limited liability companies and all income and losses were passed through to the owners. Through October 12, 2015, DIQ operated as a limited liability company and all income and losses were passed through to its owner. Subsequent to the acquisition dates, these limited liability companies were owned by Surge and became subject to income tax.
Through April 1, 2018, TW operated as a limited liability company and all income and losses were passed through to the owners. In order to facilitate the merger discussed above, TW converted from a limited liability company to a Subchapter C Corporation.
ASC Topic 740-10-30 clarifies the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise’s financial statements and prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. ASC Topic 740-10-40 provides guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition. We have no material uncertain tax positions for any of the reporting periods presented.
The Company is no longer subject to tax examinations by tax authorities for years prior to 2016.
Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year’s presentation.
Recent adopted accounting pronouncements
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases” (Topic 842). The FASB issued this update to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. The updated guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption of the update is permitted, and entities may also elect the optional transition method provided under ASU 2018-11, Leases, Topic 842: Targeted Improvement, issued in July 2018, allowing for application of the standard at the adoption date, with recognition of a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company adopted the new standard during the year ended December 31, 2019 and the adoption did not have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting,” which provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. This standard is required to be adopted in the first quarter of 2018. The Company adopted the standard during the year ended December 31, 2018 and the adoption did not have a material effect on its consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, “Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features; II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception”. Part I of this update addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down round features. Down round features are features of certain equity-linked instruments (or embedded features) that result in the strike price being reduced on the basis of the pricing of future equity offerings. Current accounting guidance creates cost and complexity for entities that issue financial instruments (such as warrants and convertible instruments) with down round features that require fair value measurement of the entire instrument or conversion option. Part II of this update addresses the difficulty of navigating Topic 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, because of the existence of extensive pending content in the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. This pending content is the result of the indefinite deferral of accounting requirements about mandatorily redeemable financial instruments of certain nonpublic entities and certain mandatorily redeemable noncontrolling interests. The amendments in Part II of this update do not have an accounting effect. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted the new standard during the year ended December 31, 2019 and the adoption did not have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
Recent announced accounting pronouncements
In June 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2018-07, Compensation – Stock Compensation (Topic718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. Under the new standard, companies will no longer be required to value non-employee awards differently from employee awards. Companies will value all equity classified awards at their grant-date under ASC 718 and forgo revaluing the award after the grant date. ASU 2018-07 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim reporting periods within that reporting period. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than the Company’s adoption date of Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (as described above under “Revenue Recognition”). The Company adopted the new standard during the year ended December 31, 2019 and the adoption did not have a material effect on the consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”. This update is to improve the effectiveness of disclosures in the notes to the financial statements by facilitating clear communication of the information required by U.S. GAAP that is most important to users of each entity’s financial statements. The amendments in this update apply to all entities that are required, under existing U.S. GAAP, to make disclosures about recurring or nonrecurring fair value measurements. The amendments in this update are effective for all entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating this guidance and the impact of this update on its consolidated financial statements.
Management does not believe that any recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material effect on the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef